What is a coagulogram and why do it?
There are many different blood tests, and each of them allows you to assess the state and performance of the body, as well as to identify serious diseases. And what shows and in what cases the coagulogram is required?
What is this study?
A coagulogram is a blood test that covers a set of indicators of its coagulability. This process is very important and is a kind of protective mechanism necessary to save human life and maintain the work of all body systems. If the blood did not clot, then even with a minimal cut, blood loss would be critical and could be fatal.
When is it necessary?
The coagulogram has the following indications:
- General assessment of the functioning of the hemostasis system. It is necessary to periodically conduct even healthy people for the timely detection of the smallest deviations.
- The coagulogram is recommended during pregnancy, as it allows you to assess the state of the mother’s circulatory system and the blood supply to the fetus, as well as to identify possible risks to childbirth (as natural,so and carried out by cesarean section).
- Scheduled comprehensive examination before the upcoming surgery. Any operation involves the violation of the integrity of soft tissues, and therefore it is important to pre-assess blood clotting in order to avoid severe blood loss.
- Analysis is required when conducting therapy involving the use of anticoagulants (to evaluate the effectiveness of the funds).
- Early and timely diagnosis of hemorrhagic disorders.
- Varicose veins of the lower extremities.
- Increased risks of blood clots.
- Diagnosis of the so-called DIC (when it is in small blood vessels, blood clots form).
- Frequent bleeding.
- The appearance of bruises, even after a minor mechanical impact.
- Long-term use of certain drugs, for example, glucocorticosteroid hormones, oral contraceptives, anabolic steroids.
- Diagnosis of certain diseases of blood vessels, liver, heart.
- Strokes or heart attacks.
- Malfunctions of the immune system.
How to prepare for the analysis?
Preparation for coagulation includes compliance with the following recommendations:
- Blood sampling is performed on an empty stomach, so before the analysis it is impossible to eat for a minimum of eight hours (or better than twelve).
- The day before the coagulogram should not eat fatty, spicy, smoked, fried, sweet. It is advisable to follow a light sparing diet. Any alcoholic drinks are prohibited.
- Avoid emotional and physical exertion.
- If you are taking drugs that affect blood clotting, by all means notify your doctor. Perhaps, the therapy will have to be interrupted.
- Do not smoke on the day of analysis.
- On the day of blood sampling you can not drink tea, juice, coffee.
- It is better to have a good sleep before the analysis, so go to bed as early as possible the day before.
How to take an analysis?
How and when to take an analysis so that its results are accurate and reliable? The fence is performed in the morning on an empty stomach, and the patient should be in a relaxed and restful state, since stress can distort the results of the analysis. It is recommended that you drink a glass of plain clean water about twenty minutes before visiting the treatment room.
Blood collection is carried out without the use of a tourniquet either by a specialized vacuum system or a sterile syringe. A needle with a wide hole is used.The capture is made from a vein, and it should be minimally traumatic, since when pain occurs, thromboplastin is released, which distorts the results. The laboratory technician will need two filled tubes, but only the last one that was collected will be used for the test.
Evaluation of indicators is carried out, as a rule, within two to three working days, but its duration largely depends on the equipment used in the laboratory, as well as the workload of the institution.
Tip: if you are frightened by the sight of blood and the smell of medical institutions, notify the nurse who is taking the fence.
Interpretation of the results and the set of studied parameters will depend on which coagulogram is assigned: normal or extended.
The usual coagulogram includes the following indicators:
- The time of blood coagulation, that is, the period for which bleeding stops. Normally it is from five to ten minutes. This is a generalized indicator that indicates deviations, but does not differentiate them.
- The prothrombin index shows the ratio of the optimal (ideal period) to the actual clotting time ofspecific patient. For the study, calcium chloride and thromboplastin are injected into the tube. Norm - about 11-20 seconds.
- APTTV, i.e., activated partial thromboplastin time. The indicator is used to assess the effectiveness of plasma factors in stopping bleeding. This is one of the most reliable values, the normal values of which range from 30 to 36-40 seconds.
- Fibrinogen in the international nomenclature system is considered the first and most important blood clotting factor. It is produced by the liver, and then transformed into fibrin in certain reactions. As a rule, the concentration of fibrinogen increases with inflammatory processes, stressful conditions or serious injuries. Rate of indicator: 2.7-3.6 grams per liter of blood.
The developed coagulogram is recommended for the diagnosis of specific diseases and covers a more significant number of indicators:
- Thrombin time characterizes the final stage of hemostasis and determines the period during which a fibrin clot is formed under the influence of thrombin. In a healthy person, this should take about 15-20 seconds.
- Plasma recalcification time is the period required for the formation of fibrin in plasma in the presence of platelets and calcium. The results will help to know how smoothly the cellular and plasma components of hemostasis react. Rate: one to two minutes.
- Soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (FDMK) are some intermediate products formed during the breakdown of a clot formed by fibrin. These components are removed from the plasma quickly, so that measuring their exact amount is problematic. Normal values are considered to be indicators not exceeding 4 mg%.
- D-dimers - residues formed during the splitting of fibrin filaments. They partially reflect the functioning of coagulation systems as well as anti-clotting components. In the blood, such substances are present only six hours. Optimum performance: from 33 to 725 ng / ml.
- Antithrombin III is a physiological anticoagulant that inhibits (that is, inhibits and inhibits) plasma coagulation factors. It is synthesized by the liver cells and must be contained in the plasma in an amount of from 70 to 125%.
Important: the specified norms apply to adults and are averaged.In addition, the results depend on the specific laboratory conducting the research and the equipment used.
Watch your health, in particular, for blood clotting.
Date: 09.10.2018, 00:35 / Views: 92365
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