What are the functions of proteins?

One of the most important life processes of the human body is metabolism. It is carried out at the expense of proteins. Amino acids that form the basis of the protein form a polymer chain, which is twisted along its axis. The function of proteins in the human body is difficult to overestimate, because all vital processes, one way or another, involve proteins.

These compounds are so unique that no other living organisms are similar.

The protein compound has 22 amino acids. Most of them can be synthesized in the body from other compounds, but 9 amino acids, nevertheless, are renewable from the outside. Often, it is food that promotes the formation of these essential amino acids. The greatest amount of protein in food of animal origin - meat, milk, eggs. Therefore, to maintain a normal balance in the body, it is necessary to consume the whole range of nutrients.

Many vegetarians deprive your body of a number of essential proteins that are simply impossible to obtain only from plant foods.Namely, protein synthesis promotes metabolism and the formation of cells and tissues.

Biological characterization of proteins

Protein compounds are one of the most important biostructures, and the functions of proteins in the cell are, first of all, the basis of the cell membranes of the whole organism.

Since proteins have the ability to recreate not only the structure, but also the properties of their own amino acids, the synthesis requires the presence of all amino acids. Each of them affects the entire synthesis of protein as a whole, so the lack of the necessary amino acid can disrupt the body.

The 9 amino acids that the body needs daily are:

  • leucine
  • valine,
  • lysine,
  • threonine,
  • tryptophan,
  • phenylalanine,
  • methionine
  • histidine,
  • isoleucine.

Only in the presence of all the above-mentioned amino acids, the body synthesizes protein. Otherwise, what is the function of proteins, i.e. structure for all cells and tissues will not form. And substances coming with food will be deposited in the form of fatty layers. These amino acids are ingested with food.

Those amino acids that are formed from other compounds:


  • tyrosine,
  • Sirin,
  • alanine,
  • asparagine,
  • cysteine,
  • glycine,
  • glutamine,
  • hydroxyproline,
  • carnitine
  • glutamic acid.

The synthesis of these substances is called transamination.

Amino acids, not only in protein compounds, but also in free form, are vital for the body. In the case of chronic amino acid deficiency, the body will not be able to carry out energy exchange and synthesize useful substances from food, which will lead to anemia, exhaustion, and possibly death.

Purpose of proteins

What functions of proteins are considered essential makes it possible to understand the role of these compounds. The most important is the function of the catalyst. Proteins are involved in almost all processes of the body, being a natural catalyst for each of the processes. The chemical composition of amino acids that make up proteins, such that it reacts with enzymes, leading a specific process into action.

The second most important factor in the function of proteins is backup power. This mainly refers to the so-called. "Reserve proteins", the presence in the body which contributes to the formation of amino acids. They form those 13 amino acids that are not replenished with food intake.The synthesis of these amino acids allows you to regulate metabolism.

The function of transporting oxygen in the blood is also carried out with the help of proteins. The main load is performed by hemoglobin, a blood protein that transmits oxygen through the cell membranes. The chemical composition of hemoglobin affects its speed and the rate at which oxygen is transferred to cells. From this depends on human performance. Other compounds of blood proteins deliver lipids.

The main protective function of the body and the activity of the immune system is also based on the action of proteins. Compounds of protein molecules - antibodies, when ingested by foreign objects - antigens, protect the body by destroying the object. Also, the protective function is the ability of protein blood molecules to coagulate when injured. Fibrinogen in blood plasma forms a clot that prevents blood from moving through this artery or vein.

Muscle tissue and its activity depend on its basis - proteins. The ability of muscles to reduce provides myosin and actin - protein amino acids. They also contribute to the contraction of the membranes of certain cells and fibers.

But the most extensive and multifaceted function of proteins is structural. Drawing up the structure of cells and tissues. Collagen is the basis for connective tissue, elastin forms the walls of blood vessels, and keratin forms the structure of fibers in skin, hair, and nails. In the case of chemical compounds of proteins and carbohydrates, these compounds form and synthesize enzymes, for example, mucins, mucoids, etc. And the compounds of phospholipids and proteins form the basis of the cell membranes of the body.

One of the elements of the catalytic function of proteins is the formation of hormones. Glands that produce hormones, such as the pancreas, pituitary and thyroid, synthesize them from proteins. Such compounds are called polypeptides.

The chemical composition of the protein compounds of the blood helps to maintain constant blood pressure in the vessels. And the compounds of proteins in the cells maintain constant oncotic pressure.

Date: 09.10.2018, 12:46 / Views: 84463

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