Tip 2: How to mine diamonds
Currently there are two types of deposits from which diamonds are mined: primary and secondary. The so-called kimberlite and lamproit pipes belong to the primary, and placers to the secondary ones. Kimberlite pipes are vertical channels; they are formed when a gas breaks out. Lamproite pipes are volcanic rocks rich in leucite and sanidine. 90% of primary diamond diamonds are contained in kimberlite pipes and only 10% are in lamproitic ones, while only 5% of lamproite diamonds can be used in jewelry.
Key diamond deposits are located in Africa, Australia, Russia and Canada. Africa is the undisputed world leader in diamond mining. The main supplier countries are Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa.
Since the discovery of the deposit and before the start of diamond mining, it may take more than one year. Financial investments are required, the creation of infrastructure, the preparation of the deposit area for development, the construction of enrichment plants. Hiring qualified specialists and the purchase of equipment - all this also costs a lot of money.
The diamond mining process is long and laborious. Only one carat of diamonds is extracted from one ton of rock from a primary deposit, 3-5 karats from a placer ton. For the extraction of diamonds from kimberlite pipes, a combined method is used: from above — open, at depth — underground.
Since the tubes have a conical shape (i.e. expand to the top), their treatment begins with open pit mining. An explosive is placed in the borehole, and after the explosion, the debris is sent to the beneficiation plant. A mine is being built for underground diamond mining. Kimberlite pipes lie at a depth of one and a half kilometers.
If we talk about lamproite pipes, then on an industrial scale diamonds are mined only from one such pipe - the Australian Argyle.
Finally, suspension plants are used to extract diamonds from placers. Diamond-bearing rock is placed in a liquid of high density (ferro-sicilium). As a result, heavy stones settle at the bottom, and the lightweight remain on the surface. They are subsequently sent for enrichment.
Industrial diamond mining in Russia was started only in 1954, when the zarnitsa kimberlite pipe was discovered. Today, enrichment is carried out in the Perm and Arkhangelsk regions, as well as in the Sakha Republic.Russia occupies one of the leading places in terms of the extraction of these precious stones.
Date: 09.10.2018, 12:43 / Views: 43134
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