Quality kitchen knives with your own hands
Materials and Tools How to make and use a clip for feeding knives Here’s what you need to make a good quality knife:Materials:
- Steel (on this question I will dwell on the next step).
- Brass rivets.
- Iron sieve.
- Gas burner.
- Metal File (with double notch).
- Hand drill and drills for it (you can use an electric one).
- Permanent marker (with a thin and with a thick rod).
- Metal shears.
- Long pliers.
- Nozzle (for burning propane).
- Metal or plastic brush.
- Wood saw.
- Transparent varnish or stain.
Steel for knives
>img src="https://sdelaysam-svoimirukami.ru/uploads/posts/2018-01/1515911832_16.jpg" style="max-width: 100%;" alt="Do-it-yourself quality kitchen knives">The choice of steel that you will stop on will greatly affect the final result. This is the most important part of a knife. Steel is a combination of two substances: iron and carbon. The more carbon is contained in steel, the harder it is. It is possible to make a thinner and sharp blade cutting edge from hard steel, which will remain so for a long time. However, this will also lead to a decrease in its strength, since such steel will become more fragile. Historically, these two elements were connected when the blacksmith heated the iron in the furnace. The smoke that emanated from the fire (mostly carbon particles) covered the steel and then entered with it into the compound during the shaping of the iron. This is how Damascus steel appeared - the more layers in the blade, the more they were folded and forged, so the carbon content in it was greater. Today Damascus steel is produced automatically and in quality is like high-grade stainless steel. It has a characteristic texture that can be emphasized with acid. With the development of technology over the past few hundred years, you no longer need all the equipment of a blacksmith to make a knife from steel with high carbon content. Today, suitable metal can be ordered online. There are two classifications of steel: stainless and rusting. Stainless steel usually contains at least 13% chromium, which saves it from rust and corrosion. Stainless steel is more difficult to process thermally, especially at home. Therefore, if you want to opt for such a metal, then heat treatment is likely to have to use third-party services. A blade made of rusting steel contains less than 13% chromium. Such a metal is usually cheaper and it is easier to heat it over it. Knives from it are as sharp as stainless steel. However, these metals are to a certain extent susceptible to corrosion and rusting, so they can not be kept damp (no more than 20 minutes). For the first knife I recommend you use one of two types of steel. Tool steel alloyed (HVG) or spring structural steel (grade 85). Now that you have finally decided on the choice of steel, it is time to decide on the dimensions. My first knife was 230 x 2, 5 x 40 mm from HVG.In its manufacture, I recommend to focus on the above-mentioned thickness and width of the blade. You can choose its length at your own discretion.
Choosing a shape for knives
Forming a blade profileUsually there are two descents in the knife, sometimes three. One goes along the entire blade of the knife, and the second makes the edge cutting. There are many types of profiles, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. I will focus on the most common, and those that can be formed with the help of a jig for a file. Wedge-shaped profile: Both sides of the blade rise to the butt in a straight line. A very common profile, as it combines sharpness and wear resistance. Pentahedral profile of a blade with an inlet m: This profile contains three edges of descent. The bottom one that sharpens. Then the middle edge, which stretches to the middle of the blade and then goes down at a slight angle or even blade. This profile is not as sharp as wedge-shaped, however, it is more resistant to wear and less friction when cutting. One-sided sharpening: Only one side has a wedge-like descent. Such a profile is sharper and more accurate, so as one side stays flat. Quite often found in Japanese culture. With such a sharpening blade wears out faster and for those who are not familiar with this profile, working with a knife may seem unusual.This blade is made the fastest, and it is easier to sharpen it. After you have chosen the blade profile, it's time to start the longest of the processes. For a steel sheet with a thickness of 2.5 mm, you will have to spend at least two hours, and the thicker the sheet, the longer it will take to process. I have some (personal) recommendations:
- The center line of sharpening can be marked with a drill with a diameter equal to the thickness of the workpiece.
- If you are going to make a double descent, after the first treatment, the edge should remain slightly thicker than you plan to do it.
- Before each stage of processing, apply a new coat of paint with a marker.
- Sharpen your workers with wide movements mi This is important, otherwise you can make uneven grooves in the surface, which can manifest themselves only when polishing, and which will then be difficult to get rid of.
- The workpiece, if possible, should be placed on a wooden bar, so Processed metal will bend less.
- Listen to an audiobook, especially some lengthy one.
- Be patient, and use a file with large teeth.
- Use only a file with a double notch, then the likelihood that the metal will remain deep king apins,decrease.
- Clean the knife and file every 2-5 minutes.
Polish the bladeWatch the video: The polished blade not only looks better, but it will be more protected from corrosion. The smoother the surface, the less likely that water will remain in the depressions and lead to spots. For polishing the blade, I used three types of stones. He began work with a rough stone (with grain P300-P400), moving to a thinner one (P800) and finished polishing with the thinnest, with an abrasive grain P1200. The result of such work will be a brilliant blade, but without a mirror tint. If you want to bring the result to the mirror surface, or you do not have any grinding stones, then you can use sandpaper or wet emery paper for this work. Known process - just rub the blade on the stoneor rub the sandpaper on the blade. We do this until the moment when the surface becomes uniform, then we reduce the size of the abrasive grain. During work with the tassus, move from one side to the other in order not to leave them wet for a long time. If it is possible to use a grinding stone that can be treated with oil, I recommend using it in such a way as to avoid the appearance of stains on the blade. This stage will take quite a lot of time, but no more than forming a blade profile.
Drilling holes for rivetsTo fix the pads on the knife handles, you need to drill two holes for the rivets in the shank.This is important to do before heat treatment. I advise you to run a test assembly to make sure that the edges of the unprocessed linings go beyond the edges of the shank. In order to drill the drill quickly into the metal, the drilling site must be marked with a punch. Then pick up the drill of the required diameter and drill two holes in the shank. If you use a hand drill, then the risk of breaking the drill will be reduced. For example, I, using an electric drill, broke two. In addition, drilling with a hand drill is slightly longer than the work of an electric drill.
Making a bugleTo expose the knife to heat treatment, you will have to heat the metal to the required temperature, at which the internal structure of the metal undergoes changes. This happens at about 750 C. I have seen some people use a burner based on an acetylene-oxygen mixture, but I myself have not tried this method. Therefore, if you are going to perform heat treatment yourself, you will need a horn. I think that most people will rather want to make it on their own than buy. Information on how to make a horn can be found on the Internet. For this you will need sand and gypsum. To check the temperature, you can reheat the kitchen salt. If it melts, it means that this temperature will be enough to harden the metal.But if you use a more complicated steel grade from the point of view of heat treatment, you can turn to third-party companies for this.
Heat treatment of a knife bladeHeat treatment is a process that reveals the real qualities of a knife. Up to this point, the metal has been quite mild and “pliable” for processing. After hardening the blade will be harder to work, so check again,Are you satisfied with it? Heat treatment has two stages: first, the steel is made more solid, then its slight weakening is performed. The second process is called vacation. It will allow the metal to be more resistant to wear (less brittle). The temperature to which the steel needs to be heated for hardening depends on the grade of steel. As a rule, the temperature to which carbon steel should be brought is lower than that of stainless steel. No matter what type of mining you decide to use, it's time to start the process. Best of all, when the flame moves to the exit in a spiral, so the metal is heated more evenly. At this stage, the gloves will not be superfluous, since you will be in close proximity with a source of such high temperature. Periodically change the position of the blade so that it surely warms up evenly. Steel will begin to change color. When it turns bright red, bring the magnet to it. If the metal is magnetised, it means the blade is not warm enough. If not, then the temperature is just right. For most tool steels, oil is used as a coolant.Used engine oil is well suited, however, when lowering a hot knife into it, flames will come out of it. If you do not want to deal with petroleum products, you can use canola or olive oil. However, regardless of the method chosen, be prepared and keep a fire extinguisher or a box of baking soda nearby. Never try to extinguish burning oil with water. The amount of oil must be sufficient so that the metal in it can be completely submerged. Nevertheless, when making a kitchen knife, the shank is not necessarily hardened. The container should not be from burning materials. No plastic or wood. I used the old artillery shell. When you put the blade in the oil, move it back and forth, as if you were going to cut something. Do not drive them from side to side, as this may lead to a curvature of the blade. After two minutes the knife can be removed. Be careful, because at this stage the knife has become too fragile and can crack from a small fall. Rinse the blade in soapy water to remove any residual oil. Black scales may form on the surface, this is normal.After hardening the blade, try to slightly treat it with a file, it should slip and leave only small scratches. If it cuts well into the metal, then the hardening process needs to be repeated again. Now it's time to release the blade. This process reduces its hardness, but improves the flexibility of the blade. Adjust the ratio of hardness and flexibility can be the height of temperature and tempering time. Most steel manufacturers have metal heat treatment tables. The hardness level can be measured using the Rockwell scale. At the kitchen knife this figure should be at the level of 60-64 kgf. The release of my blade from steel ХВГ took two hours. After the release the blade is finally polished. Everything is done fairly quickly, only a very thin top layer is removed with the help of a stone or sandpaper.
Sharpening a quality knife sharpeningWatch the video: Sharpening is an art that needs to study hard. Although already developed certain systems of this process. One of the ways is to fix the file in a special holder. I do not recommend using sharpening tools in which the angle of sharpening of the cutting edge cannot be changed. Most likely, he will not approach our option. I sharpened my knife in a very traditional way. He drove the blade along the wheel without changing the angle of the blade. This is not as difficult as it may seem, because you choose a sharpening angle, and you will know how to hold the blade.The smaller the angle, the sharper the knife will be, and the more fragile its cutting edge will be. Hearing a hissing sound in the course of work, we turn the blade over and work with the other side. Only this time do less movements. Continue to change sides and reduce the number of labor movements (to three on each side). After that go to the stone with a smaller grain of abrasive. I finish sharpening my knives on a stone with grain P8000. I would recommend sharpening a knife (at least partially) before you glue the pads of the handle. Small particles, which are formed as a result of work on the axle, can enter into wooden lining, changing their color.
Making a handle, final touches
Now your quality kitchen knife is ready
Date: 08.10.2018, 15:13 / Views: 84532
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